Home / Research & Conservation / Research Grant /. Know What Publication Style To Utilize

Home / Research & Conservation / Research Grant /. Know What Publication Style To Utilize

Decide which Journal(s) you will want to submit to and download their manuscript composition guidelines from their websites. Determine which publication style is appropriate for the Journal and consistently follow that style through the entire manuscript. For example, Soundings uses APA style (American Psychological Association). Some of the more widely used style manuals include:

Parts of the Paper

The majority of research papers are comprised of seven separate sections including an abstract, introduction, hypothesis, materials & methods, results, discussion, and reference section.

An abstract is a concise custom writing single paragraph summary associated with completed work whereby the reader can learn the explanation behind the study, general way of the problem, pertinent results, and important conclusions. The abstract may be the only text in a research paper to be written without needing paragraphs to be able to separate major points. Summarize the research succinctly, utilising the past tense, complete sentences and grammar that is correct. Through the following elements:

  • Reason for the analysis – hypothesis, overall question, objective (make an effort to define within one sentence)
  • Model organism or system and brief description for the experiment (make an effort to define in a single sentence)
  • Results, including specific quantitative data and link between statistical analyses
  • Important conclusions or questions that follow from the s that are experiment(


The goal of an introduction would be to acquaint your reader with all the rationale behind the task. Provide a complete literary article on the info known about the topic (that both supports and contrasts your hypothesis) placing your projects in a context that is theoretical enables your reader to know and appreciate your objectives. Describe the importance (significance) for the scholarly study and exactly why this has value. Defend the model and provide a rationale. Explain why you selected this organism that is particular system? Exactly what are its advantages/disadvantages? You might touch upon its suitability from a point that is theoretical of as well as indicate practical reasons behind using it.

Hypothesis (es)

A hypothesis is an informed guess regarding how things work. Your hypothesis should really be constructed in a manner that helps you answr fully your original research question and be stated in a way that can easily be measured. Your research needs to have addressed whether your hypothesis is true or false. Describe the reasoning and references that led you to definitely make each hypothesis.

Materials and Methods

Materials and methods could be reported under separate subheadings in this particular section or can be incorporated together. The aim would be to document all specialized materials and general procedures to ensure that another individual can use some or all of the methods in another study or judge the scientific merit of your work. It is not to be a step by step description of all you did, nor is a methods section a set of instructions. Omit all explanatory information and background, saving this for the discussion. Also avoid including information that is irrelevant to a third party, such as for instance what color ice bucket you used, or which individual logged into the data. Typically, the person that is third voice is used to write this section.

The goal of a results section is always to provide and illustrate your findings using figures and tables that may portray the outcome most effectively. This section must be a report that is completely objective of results and any interpretation of what these results indicate must be reserved when it comes to when it comes to discussion section. Describe all of your outcomes, pointing your reader to observations which are most relevant, however, the text should complement figures and/or tables, not repeat the same information. If applicable, describe results of control experiments and can include observations which are not presented in a formal figure or table. Never include raw data or intermediate calculations in a research paper. Usually do not present the same data more than once. Utilize the past tense when you relate to your results and put everything in a logical order.


The discussion section is employed to present an interpretation of the results and support your conclusions evidence that is using your experiment and, if appropriate, from other published literature. As you describe your data be sure to identify mechanisms that will account for the results. In the event the results differ from your expectations, explain why that could have happened. Then describe the theory that the evidence supported if your results agree. It really is never appropriate to simply suggest that the info agreed with expectations, and let it drop. Decide if the experimental design was properly controlled an if it adequately addressed the hypothesis(es). Describe if each hypothesis was supported, rejected, or if a decision could never be made out of confidence, and expand upon the mechanisms that deemed it so. Compare and contrast literature review findings to your research findings and attempt to offer alternative explanations if at all possible. One experiment will likely not answer an question that is overall so keeping the big picture in mind, identify what questions remain and suggest areas that require further study.

Literature Cited

List all literature cited in your paper, in alphabetical order, by first author. Only use primary literature (original research articles authored by the initial investigators).